Myopia Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

As you grew up, you could not see your alarm clock in the morning. Then, with your first pair of spectacles, you discovered that trees have foliage. The absence of the need to squint to read the words on the screen made attending class more convenient. Does this description of your circumstances ring true? If so, you may have myopia.

What is Myopia?

Myopia is a common type of refractive error, such as hyperopia, astigmatism, and presbyopia. Emetropia refers to the absence of a refractive defect in the eye. Myopic individuals can see well up close but have difficulty seeing objects at a distance. This contrasts with hyperopia, which causes close-up vision difficulties. Astigmatism distorts vision at both near and far distances. It is frequently accompanied by myopia and hyperopia.

In most cases, presbyopia develops in one’s forties and causes difficulties with near vision. A single eye cannot be both myopic and hyperopic. Nevertheless, presbyopia is accompanied by myopia, hyperopia, or astigmatism. A person with both presbyopia and myopia may have trouble with both far and near vision.

Why Does Myopia Occur?

Each eye has its own unique shape and dimensions. Myopic eyes, also known as nearsighted eyes, are typically lengthier than emmetropic (normal) eyes. When light from a distance penetrates a myopic eye, it falls in front of the retina instead of on it. This results in blurred vision that can be corrected with lenses or surgery.

Myopia typically begins during the school years, progresses through early adulthood, and then stabilises. Nonetheless, some individuals with degenerative myopia will continue to deteriorate throughout their lifetimes. This uncommon condition, pathological myopia, results in extreme nearsightedness. In addition, in contrast to conventional myopia, degenerative myopia can result in significant visual complications. Although many of such complications are treatable, there is still the possibility of impairment and loss of acuity.

Myopia Symptoms

What exactly is nearsightedness? It is hazy at a distance. However, it is typically clear up close unless presbyopia and/or astigmatism are also present. Nearsightedness causes difficulty viewing the television, recognising faces at a distance, and transportation difficulties, particularly at night. Squinting the eyes temporarily improves clarity, which is a method employed by many individuals to circumvent the haze. Sadly, this may result in eyestrain and migraines, two additional common myopia symptoms.

Children may be unable to express their symptoms verbally. However, important indicators include eye irritation, excessive blinking, squinting, and sitting too close to the television set.

Myopia Treatment

There are numerous options for myopia treatment, with glasses being the most prevalent. Occasionally, nearsighted spectacles can distort vision, especially at higher prescriptions; consequently, many prefer contact lenses. On occasion, individuals opt for rigid gas-permeable rather than the softer variety.

An alternative to myopia spectacles is a form of overnight contact lens that is rigid and gas-permeable. It’s called orthokeratology, and it alters the cornea’s shape overnight to reduce the need for spectacles during the day.